Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules that can be applied in a wide range of areas. These compounds can be widely used in industries as pharmaceutical agents, and for microbial-enhanced oil recovery, among others. Amongst these biosurfactants, surfactin, rhamnolipids, and mannosileritritol lipids (MEL) show remarkable properties. Thus, they can be applied in a wide range of applications.
Production of surfactin (inducers): It was investigated the effect of hydrophobic inducers on surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 using cassava wastewater as a low-cost culture medium. Palmitic acid led to the highest yield in terms of surfactin production (≈1.3 g/L of pure surfactin). The inducers triggered the production of new surfactin homologues, that represent, potentially, new biological activities.
Antimicrobial and antioxidant of MEL: It was evaluated the MEL combined with Thymus vulgaris, Lippia sidoides, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oil emulsions (O/W) and evaluate their antimicrobial and antioxidant capacity. The antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris and Lippia sidoides was increased against Escherichia coli (500 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (600 µg/mL), Bacillus subtilis (120 µg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1500 µg/mL), Penicillium sp. (62.25 µg/mL), Aspergillus flavus (250 µg/mL), Fusarium oxysporum (100 and 250 µg/mL), and Candida albicans (125 and 250 µg/mL).
Biosurfactants as structure directing agents (SDAs) of porous siliceous materials: SDAs are essential for the synthesis of siliceous materials, such as zeolites. Porous structures are usually achieved by using SDAs in the synthesis process, improving their mass transfer. However, synthetic SDAs present disadvantages. Thus, green biosurfactants are remarkable alternatives, since they show lower critical micelle concentration (1–200 mg/L), lower surface tensions (25–38 mN/m), unique self-aggregation structures, higher biodegradability, and lower toxicity.
MEL as stimulant on the germination of Lactuca sativa L.: It was evaluated the biostimulant effect of MEL-B on the germination of SF 31 monic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds. The seeds germinated at different concentrations of MEL-B. The incidence of germinated seeds, the germination index, and the average germination time were evaluated. Regarding root morphology, the length of the seedlings, gross mass, development of lateral roots, and roots under biotic stress were evaluated. The MEL-B at 158 mg/L stimulated seed germination, growth, and seedling development parameters. The appearance of lateral roots and a lower incidence of stressed roots was also noticed. In addition, MEL-B at 158 mg/L was the highest concentration in which there was no phytotoxic effect on seeds. In contrast, MEL-B from 316 mg/L showed an inhibitory effect on seed germination and contributed to the oxidative stress of the medium. The increase in enzymatic activity corroborates the phytotoxic effect and consequent stress of seeds at 316 and 632 mg/L concentrations.
In vivo acute toxicity of MEL to swiss mice after intraperitoneal administration: Therefore, the main goal of this study was to evaluate in vivo acute toxicity of the homologue MEL?B in swiss mice, 24 and 72 h after its intraperitoneal (IP) administration at doses of doses 50 and 150 mg/kg. The oxidized intracellular 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), sulfhydryl, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - biochemical parameters - were evaluated in different organs: spleen, lung, liver, kidney, heart, and gastrocnemius. The triglyceride levels, CK-MB and LDH enzymes were also analyzed. The analysis of results demonstrated that the MEL-B administered via IP did not induce acute toxicity in 5 out of 6 organs - except liver, very likely, due to the metabolization of MEL-B. The triglyceride levels, CK-MB and LDH enzymes did not present any significant alteration
Audience Take Away Notes :
- The contents of the presentation will be able to provide the audience with the necessary tools to understand the needs of clinics and pharmacologists assisting them by designing and producing diagnostic and treatment tools to be applied in nanomedicine.
- The topics covered during the presentation will provide not only updated knowledge to biotechnologists engaged in research and teaching but also to those of pharmaceutical companies and big pharma to produce new drugs or reposition some existing ones.
- Among the contents presented in the talk, a patent was presented that will certainly make it much easier for many colleagues to load a wide range of active pharmaceutical ingredients into EVs carriers