Medical biotechnology is a branch of medicine that studies and then manufactures pharmaceutical and diagnostic items using living cells and cell components. These items serve in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Medical biotechnology is making significant advances and benefiting millions of people, from the Ebola vaccine to mapping human DNA to agricultural implications. Work in genetic testing, medication therapies, and artificial tissue growth are some of the most recent applications of biological technology. New problems have arisen as a result of the numerous breakthroughs in medical biotechnology. In recent years, the field of medical biotechnology has seen remarkable growth, resulting in the creation of a number of novel ways for preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases. Novel methodologies, such as polymerase chain reaction, gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays, cell culture, gene silencing using interference RNA, and genome editing, have made significant contributions to improving health science, such as human genome sequencing, stem cell use for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, antibiotic development, and the generation of monoclonal antibodies for therapy.