Microbes (also known as microorganisms) are organisms that are too small to be seen without the use of a microscope. Bacteria, fungus, protozoa, microalgae, and viruses are among them. Microbes can be found in everyday places like soil, water, food, and animal intestines, as well as more unusual places like rocks, glaciers, hot springs, and deep-sea vents. The great range of biochemical and metabolic properties that have emerged via genetic variation and natural selection in microbial populations is reflected in the wide variety of microbial environments. Microbial biotechnology will lead to breakthroughs such as improved microbial agents for biological control of plant and animal pests, improved vaccines and disease diagnostic tools, modifications of plant and animal pathogens for reduced virulence, development of new industrial catalysts and fermentation organisms, and development of new microbial agents for bioremediation of water and soil contaminated by agricultural runoff, all of which will be enabled by genome studies. Food safety, food security, biotechnology, value-added goods, human nutrition and functional foods, plant and animal protection, and basic agricultural science research all benefit from microbial biotechnology research.