Title: Cytogenetic study of animal models and discovery of phyto-active anti cancer drug- a new arena of thought
A prolonged battle to win over mutational hazards still remains unconquered by mankind. At present, major thrust area of research is aimed at giving a maximum benefit to human civilization. In the present context of globalization, biotechnology will dominate the scenario. Allopathic anti-cancer drugs currently available as chemotherapeutic agents, not only destroy cancer cells, but also kill normal cells and leave a heavy toll on patients with severe side-effects, Therefore, discovery of an anticancer drug with minimum side effects but satisfyingly potent preferably from plant origin had grabbed attention of researchers all over the globe. After the pioneering discovery of Muller (1927) and the horrible use of Nuclear bombs in Hiroshima & Nagasaki of Japan, the devastating role of physical mutagens on biological materials had been worked out by various workers on different models from virus and bacteria to man. (Mohr,1919; Stadler, 1928; Lea,1962;Carlson,1938,1940,1941,1951,1953,1955, etc.)Manna ev. al. had extensively studied the effects of physical and chemical mutagens on a wide range of animal models as grasshoppers, fishes, mammals as mice (Mus musculus), shrew (Suncus murinus) and even the primate Macaca mulata (Manna,1969,1971,1980,1981,1986; Manna & Majumder, 1962,1967,1968; Sur&Manna,1987; Sur 1998, Sur & Das, 2008). Some of these workers also succeeded to find radio-protective agents. Another pioneering work on “Living mutagens” by Manna et al 1969, 1969,1970,1971,1973,1975,1980,1982,1986,1987,1989, 1992,1994,1995, 1998) on laboratory mammals had ushered in a new arena of thought.In our works, we extensively studied genotoxic and clastogenic effect of X rays, gamma rays, chemical mutagens on chromosomes of live animals as grasshopper, fish, one laboratory mammal - mice, and one wild mammal- shrew, in vivo. (Sur PK, Das PK, Thakur A & Roy S (2010); Das PK, Sur PK, Das S (2011); Sur PK, Das PK, Das S (2011(a), 2011(b)); Sur PK, Roy M, ,Das PK (2011); Das PK, Sur PK (2012); Sur P.K. & Das P.K. (2012(a), 2012(b)); Sur PK, Das PK, Sarkar P (2012); Sur PK, Das PK, Das S (2012); Sur PK, Das PK, Roy M, Biswas M, Das S (2012); Das PK (2013, Ph.D. Thesis); Das PK, Sur PK, Basu M (2013); Sur PK, Das PK, Basu M, Majumder 8, Talukder P (2017), Das PIS (2021, 2022, 2022). We also reported the anti-clastogenic, anti-cancer, radio-protective activities of leaf extract from Barlerial upulina Lindl. on laboratory animals as mice and fish. Further isolation of phyto-active molecules from the leaf extract, proves the presence of ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol, and sitosterol-3-O-glucoside as major anti-cancer agents (Das P.K. & Sur P.K., 2012). Future work on screening, dose selection, drug-tissue interaction and identification of marker genes are in the pipeline.
Audience Take Away Notes :
- Cytogenetic tool as Chromosomal Aberration Test (CAT) 1s an easy and reliable technique to access neoplastic effect of any carcinogenic agent on living organisms. Therefore, this has a wide application in R&D of Pharmaceutical Industries, or Research Facilities to test carcinogenic property of mutagens, and anti-cancer property of any material, be it from synthetic origin or natural source.
- Conventional tissue culture techniques do not mimic drug-tissue interaction inside the living system (in vivo). A drug that has been found to be active in tissue culture model, does not exhibit its performance when it inters a human system. But cytogenetic procedure on animal models is direct evidence that illustrate a drug’s performance in the human system, provided that sufficient animal ethical clearance is obtained.
- It has wide application in drug development organizations as CRO or R&D Services of Pharmaceutical Industry.
- Screening and Dose calculation can be done.
- Our research findings augment further development of anti-cancer drug, preferably from a natural source, which will pave the path towards less side effective, potent and cheap anti-cancer drug development